The most common marker for Manuka honey is MGO (methylglyoxal).
It is a toxic compound with antibacterial properties and is measured in the UMF and MGO grading systems.
However, the UMF grading system also measures NPA (non-peroxide activity) which represents the industry’s standard phenol disinfectant.
The NPA marker relates directly to the overall UMF rating. If a Manuka honey has a NPA of 18 then it will be UMF 18+.
Leptosperin is naturally found in Manuka honey and is also measured in UMF.
DHA (dihydroxyacetone) is also present in the UMF grading system. It is the precursor for methylglyoxal and determines the overall MGO levels.
The KFactor grading system is quite different than UMF and MGO. It measures markers such as purity, live enzymes, over 250 chemical compounds, DHA, pollen count, pH levels, antioxidant levels and phenolic compounds.
Interestingly, it does not measure MGO, NPA or leptosperin levels.